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#
Microwave Calculator

The MicroWave calculator aims to help calculate the errors in your microwave measurements.
It consists of Directivity Error Calculator, Mismatch Error Limit Calculator, and
Ratio-to-dB Calculator.

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Directivity Calculator

The Directivity Error Calculator shows the accuracy of a reflection measurement
of unknown impedance based upon the directivity of the coupler used for the measurement.
It is also a convenient way to convert a reflection coefficient to an equivalent
standing wave ratio (SWR), return loss, or mismatch loss.

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Mismatch Error Limit Calculator

The Mismatch Error Limit Calculator shows the potential error (or uncertainty) in
a transmission measurement due to imperfect source match and load match. It can
also be used in a reflection measurement to determine the error caused by the mismatch
between the measurement port and the unknown impedance.

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Ratio-to-dB Calculator

The Ratio-to-dB Calculator simply converts between voltage ratio, power ratio, and
dB.

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Antenna Calculator

The Antenna Calculator calculates the various antenna measurements using
physical and electrical parameters.

**Free Space Path Loss**

It uses the standard Free Space Path Loss as function of a single frequency point.
This formula works for direct line of site transmission only.
**Friss Equation**

The Friss Equation for Free Space Loss includes the Gains and Path Loss in terms
of transmitted power. This formula calculates the Rx power of the network and works
for direct line of size transmission only.
**Far Field calculator**

The Far Field Calculator returns the approximate Reactive, Near and Far Field regions
(in terms of distance) from the aperture of a transmitting antenna. In order to
measure the far field radiation pattern of an antenna and have a flat phase - front
at the Receive antenna aperture, the distance from the Transmit to Receive antenna
must be equal to or greater than the value calculated.

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Noise Calculator

The Noise Calculator consists of various calculators related to measurements of
noise power, noise figure, and noise parameters:

**F,NF,Te Calculator**

The F, NF, Te Calculator converts between noise factor, noise figure, and effective-input-noise
temperature.
**kTB Calculator**

The kTB Calculator calculates noise- power-based on temperature and bandwidth.
**ENR Calculator**

The ENR Calculator converts between Tcold, Thot and ENR (excess noise ratio).
**Y-factor Calculator**

The Y-factor Calculator calculates the Y-factor-based noise figure from Pcold, Phot,
and ENR.
**Cascade Noise Calculator**

Calculate DUT noise figure from system noise figure, receiver noise figure, and
DUT gain.